Bark stripping wounds by red deer (Cervus elavus L.) were assessed on 9026 Norway spruce trees. Wound variables (length, width, area, relative width, height above ground, and angle) were analysed using generalized additive models with spatial soap film smoothers. Wounds located at the uphill side of trees were larger in summer than winter, and wound size depended on the diameter at breast height (DBH) and was spatially clustered.
Cervidae; Wound sizes; Wound position; Spatial distribution; Soap film smoother; Picea abies
Hahn, C., Vospernik, S. Position, size, and spatial patterns of bark stripping wounds inflicted by red deer (Cervus elavus L.) on Norway spruce using generalized additive models in Austria. Annals of Forest Science 79, 13 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13595-022-01134-y
Data and/or Code availability
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.