Grafting, i.e. joining a scion (plant upper part) and a rootstock (plant lower part) is a worldwide developing horticultural technique useful to overcome various soilborne diseases and stresses. In sub-Saharan Africa, grafting is widely used nowadays, in commercial orchards (avocado, mango, or citrus) but for vegetables, it remains largely unknown. Scientists Nordey et al. explored the potential of vegetable grafting to increase and secure crop productions in the challenging environments of sub-Saharan Africa and attempted to identify factors hindering such practice.
New data sources improve the evaluation of agricultural management practices. Kubitza et al. reviewed the literature and found that satellite data have been used successfully to detect various agricultural practices in developing countries. However, only a few studies have used satellite data to estimate the yield impacts of agricultural practices and to estimate the impact beyond the biophysical sphere. Usage of satellite data in developing countries has yet produced technical studies but should now facilitate collaboration with economics.
Agricultural intensification has shaped uniform cropping systems and landscapes. Crop diversification may counteract such negative impacts and loss of biodiversity but presently, research lacks a shared understanding of diversification. Scientists Hufnagel et al. reckon that research approaches to crop diversification are too variable and inefficient. They propose a shared framework to compare, and profit from, crop diversification benefits.
Chickpea is the main rotational crop under cereal-legume cultivation in the Vertisol cropping systems of the Ethiopian highlands. Scientists Korbu et al. recently evidenced that the genetic potentials of high-yielding chickpea cultivars are limited by traditional crop management practices. They suggest implementing improved practices in combination with adequate nutrient use. Moreover, they recommend paying utmost research attention to the soil physical properties.
Winter rye may improve soil health with the benefit of an added dairy forage option when harvested as a double crop in an otherwise continuous corn silage system. Scientists West et al. observed that fall-seeded winter rye reduced excess soil nitrate by about 40% when the rye was harvested as a forage double crop, without decreases in total yield. When the rye was used as a cover crop (i.e., not harvested), there was evidence for buffered loss of nitrogen to the environment but no decrease in corn silage yield.
Ratooning consists of harvesting the above-ground portion of a plant while leaving sprouts on the lower part in order to produce a fresh crop. Scientists Akbari-Kharaji et al. recently observed that the ratooning of fennel during 6 years produced acceptable grain and essential oil yields although decreasing chemicals and machinery use. The risk of soil degradation decreased, hence making the practice suitable in arid climate countries, such as Iran.
Rice consumption in Tanzania has greatly increased since the 1960s; it is predicted to continue to increase owing to urbanization and changes in consumer preferences from traditional staples such as maize and tubers to rice. Scientists Sekiya et al. analyzed the status of rice production in Tanzania from a multidisciplinary perspective and proposed a realistic research framework much oriented toward meeting consumer demands for improving rice production in Tanzania.
Perennial grains have many environmental, agronomic and economic benefits, such as helping farmers adapt to climate change or restore degraded soils. Scientists Isgren et al. recently reviewed the knowledge about on-farm adoption and the use of perennial grains around the world. In the Sub-Saharan African context, they advocated developing a farming systems research approach in order to broaden the emerging research agenda around perennial grains.
The expansion of cereal monocropping has been a growing challenge in dry areas. This trend is mostly a consequence of policies and incentives for the intensification of cereals as well as lower yields, diseases and pest susceptibility, and perceived economic disadvantages of legumes. Considering a two-year period, scientists Yigezu et al. provided evidence that rotation, especially with improved varieties of legumes, leads to a total two-year gross margin higher than cereal monocropping.
Producing desert truffles constitutes a valuable agricultural activity in semiarid areas of the Iberian Peninsula due to their much appreciated edible value and their low water requirement. Scientists Andrino et al. found that the crop of desert truffle can be stabilized and optimized, around 300 kg/ha, by controlling the aridity index and soil water potential in the field by irrigation during autumn and spring. They propose four methods to manage the plantations depending on available resources and facilities at the cultivation sites.