Timely crop planting is critical to food security in the Eastern Gangetic Plains. Scientists Urfels et al. analyzed the factors shaping planting times. They found that farmers perceive the benefits of timely planting, but the ecosystem and climatic factors constrain their ability to plant at desired times with social factors playing a prominent secondary role. To enhance timely planting, they plead to strengthen the agricultural input chains, develop dynamic planting date advisories, and coordinate rice planting and wildlife conservation.