Food security is an urgent matter, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Many organisations are providing agricultural help to improve farming in poor nations. While such help is usually considered beneficial, unexpected negative consequences are possible. Scientists Schindler et al. analysed how agricultural assistance is planned by organisations. They found that methods used to plan agricultural assistance do not agree with the theory of sustainability.
Many developing countries such as Timor-Leste are subject to extensive poverty and malnutrition but concurrently are rich in social networks. Scientists Lopes et al. explore the leveraging of existing social capital for development in community-based maize seed dissemination in Timor-Leste.
Despite many initiatives for more sustainability, agriculture moves in the opposite direction with increasing pesticide impacts and decreasing nature quality. Using social system analysis Noe and Alrøe found that there is a need to find news ways recoupling of food production and other aspects of sustainability.